Ryerson Fashion Research Collection

Opening the closet door to a Canadian fashion archive


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The Arsenic Green Dress

Arsenic Green Dress_Side copy

FRC2014.07.406 A+B+C Arsenic Green Dress Photo by Suzanne Petersen, Bata Shoe Museum

by Ingrid Mida

In the 1860s and 1870s, the colour green was highly fashionable. This distinctive green pigment – “Scheele’s Green” – was achieved with the use of arsenic. It is a lustrous green – often equated to an emerald green.

In August 2014 as I was unpacking a large donation of historic pieces from the Cleaver-Suddon Collection, I recognized the colour. I had learned about this toxic pigment from hearing Dr. Alison Matthews David talk about her research for her book Fashion Victims. Suspecting that this dress might contain arsenic, I tweeted her a photo on August 24, 2014 and we arranged to test it in the Ryerson University Physics Lab on September 5, 2014.

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Testing the bodice in the Ryerson Physics Lab

Of course we were both thrilled to learn that the dress did in fact contain arsenic as I suspected and the dress became the subject of an article in The Ryersonian by Kathleen McGouran. Since the FRC does not have a dedicated display space, I contacted curator Elizabeth Semmelhack at the Bata Shoe Museum to offer this dress for the Fashion Victims exhibit. The museum already had another green dress on display but it would have to come down after a year. The dress belonging to Ryerson is presently on display at the Bata Shoe Museum after the creation of a custom mount and some conservation work.

This dress (FRC2014.07.406 A+B+C) was originally purchased in 1967 for $15 at a vintage clothing sale  by Alan Suddon for his private collection. The dress consists of three parts, a bodice, a skirt and an overskirt. Made of silk and decorated with braid and fringe, it was likely worn as late afternoon dress with a fichu or under-blouse to fill in the deep neckline. The bodice has a bust measurement of 32.5 inches and a waist measurement of 25 inches. The skirt has a slight train as was common during the period. This fashion plate from La Mode shows a similar dress.

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Fashion Plate La Mode (undated) Private Collection

If you have not yet seen the Fashion Victims exhibition at the Bata Shoe Museum, do be sure to visit.  The display will be up until May 2016.

To read more about Scheele’s Green, be sure to get a copy of Dr. Alison Matthews David’s book: Fashion Victims, The Dangers of Dress Past and Present.

 

 


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The Enduring Fedora

By Millie Yates

The fedora hat was named after a character in the Sardou play in which it first appeared in 1882 (“Fedora”). How fitting that a hat designed for the stage should be re-interpreted by a theatrical millinery designer like Philip Treacy. Traditionally the fedora was a hat worn by men, but later in the 20th century the fedora was fashioned for women in brighter colours and with an upturned brim for an air of femininity (Peck, “The History of the Fedora”). The object I have chosen to study is a woman’s gray felted fedora by Philip Treacy (FRC 2009.01.402). The beauty of this hat lies in its inexplicable delicacy. A warm, woollen hat such as this (in an oversized shape, no less) should by definition appear bulky. Yet the talented Treacy has made such a hat look as light as air.

Gray fedora felted wool hat with two brown clipper feathers. By Phillip Treacy. C. Post 2000. FRC 2009.01.402

Gray fedora felted wool hat with two brown clipper feathers. By Phillip Treacy. FRC 2009.01.402, Gift of Kathleen Kubas.

The first thing to be noticed about this hat is its beautiful soft curves. The round, gently sloping brim is 4’’ (10.16 cm) deep around the hat, with a 1/4’’ (0.635 cm) of topstitching folded up and over the brim towards the sideband of the hat. Based on the appearance of the stitches, it was most likely done by machine. The brim bends upwards gradually towards the back and right side of the hat, peaking at 2 1/4’’ inches (5.715 cm) at the right back of the brim.

The sideband of the hat was blocked in a fedora-style, though the shape has been exaggerated in a number of ways. At its highest point, the sideband of the hat sits at 6’’ (15.24 cm). This peak is on the opposite side of the peak of the hat’s brim, creating a balance within the accessory. The sideband is slightly dented in a number of areas, most notably at left centre-front, right centre-front and left centre-back. These dents look intentional and there are no apparent signs that they were created by the wearer.

The crown of the hat is one of its most interesting attributes. Blocked on a teardrop-shaped hat block, the crown is built up 1 1/4’’ (3.175 cm) along the sides and then sharply dips into the teardrop shape.  All of Treacy’s blocks are handmade by Lorenzo Ré in Paris (Davies 126). The point of the teardrop points slightly off-centre, creating a pretty asymmetry that would frame the face of the wearer. Asymmetry is not uncommon in millinery, as angles that parallel those of the face tend to appear too harsh and geometric when worn (Dreher 12).

A beautiful blue-gray  band curves around where the brim meets the sideband at 3 1/2’’ wide (8.89 cm) for the majority of its length. This appears to be a dyed replica of a Cobra snakeskin. Like the crown of the hat, the band of skin is slightly off-centre. It narrows considerably towards the front left side, where the skin overlaps and is secured with a skin-covered button. The skin folds in three places where it narrows towards the left centre front of the hat, creating an interesting texture with the skin. Tucked between where the skin overlaps are two clipper feathers that lean on a low angle towards the left side of the hat. The feathers are mostly brown and white, and these two colours pick up on the lighter nap of the wool and the darker scales of the skin. At their widest point they are about 2 3/4’’ wide (6.985) but narrow dramatically to a fine point at their tips. The feathers extend approximately 8-9’’ (20.32-22.86 cm) from the hat. The feathers contribute significantly to the delicate air of the hat, giving it lightness and a touch of whimsy.

Gray fedora felted wool hat with two brown clipper feathers. By Phillip Treacy. C. Post 2000. FRC 2009.01.402

Detail of band on gray fedora felted wool hat with two brown clipper feathers by Phillip Treacy. FRC 2009.01.402

The wool of the hat has a long luxurious nap that has been brushed in a counter-clockwise direction. It is made from rabbit wool. The colour of the wool is a blue-gray. Its texture is soft and plush, and one could imagine that this would be a very warm hat. This hat was most likely intended for wear in a cooler climate or season. The felt is thick, and would be too hot for the summer.

The inside of the hat is lined with a blue silk satin with a gold piping at the crown. A stretchy Petersham ribbon circles the head size collar. Treacy’s logo is stamped where the lining touches the crown, and in a label at the centre-back of the hat. There is a content label that reads “100% Poils de Lapin” which is French for “100% rabbit hair”.

The hat is in very good condition. The only apparent damage is one small, circular dent on the right sideband just above the skin band. Felted hats may not be worn during humid or wet weather, because they are heat-set and moisture can cause the blocked shape to wilt. The edges and curves of the hat are still very sharp, and the feathers do not appear to be bent or distorted in any way.

A number of sensory reactions occurred to me when viewing and handling this hat. The first was my reaction to the texture. The softness of the hat is felt before even touching the hat’s plush surface. The thickness of the felt looks compressible, as though if it were squeezed it would bounce back. The juxtaposition of the soft rabbit hair next to the scaly, sleek snakeskin is eye-catching. It is interesting that Treacy has used entirely natural fiber and skins in his design: from the rabbit felt, to the ostrich feathers, to the snakeskin and even the silk lining.

Gray fedora felted wool hat with two brown clipper feathers. By Phillip Treacy. C. Post 2000. FRC 2009.01.402

Gray fedora felted wool hat with two brown clipper feathers. By Phillip Treacy. C.  FRC 2009.01.402

The balance of shapes and weight within the form of the hat is another hallmark of Treacy’s work. He always works in front of a mirror when creating his forms because to him, mirrors tell the absolute truth about a design. He has said: “If something is off, I need to be able to see it, and then I can spot millimetres from miles away…I believe in that millimetre” (Davies 38).

Drawing of Philip Treacy hat detail FRC 2009.01.402 by Millie Yates Drawing of Philip Treacy hat FRC 2009.01.402 by Millie Yates

Drawing of Philip Treacy hat detail by Millie Yates FRC 2009.01.402

This hat was worn by Kathleen Kubas who loved wearing hats and was known as ‘The Hat Lady’ in Toronto. After she passed away, her family donated over 300 hats to the Ryerson Fashion Research Collection. Her hat collection included other top millinery labels like Stephen Jones, Oscar de la Renta, Bentley Tomlin, and Eric Javits.

Light brown felted Breton trimmed with Mongolian sheep fur, resulting in a halo-like effect. By Oscar de la Renta. C. Post 2000. FRC 2009.01.703

Light brown felted Breton trimmed with Mongolian sheep fur, resulting in a halo-like effect. By Oscar de la Renta. ca. Post 2000 – 2008. FRC 2009.01.703, Gift of Kathleen Kubas.

 

Black Mad-hatter women's hat with silk flowers and fur-like feathers. By Philip Treacy. C. Post 2000. FRC 2009.01.512

Black Mad-hatter women’s hat with silk flowers and fur-like feathers. By Philip Treacy. ca. Post 2000-2008. FRC 2009.01.512. Gift of Kathleen Kubas

 

Black velvet beret. Black veil with chenille spotted and black rhinestone details. Veil is full face with two long trains. By Kokin New York. C. Post 2000. FRC 2009.01.488

Black velvet beret. Black veil with chenille spotted and black rhinestone details. Veil is full face with two long trains. By Kokin New York. ca. Post 2000. FRC 2009.01.488. Gift of Kathleen Kubas.

Her affinity for the fedora style of hat is evidenced by a number of other hats in this style made in different colours and materials like a pink satin fedora (FRC 2009.01.03) and a cheetah-print rabbit wool felt hat (FRC 2009.01.405), also by Treacy . The cheetah-print hat in particular bears a striking resemblance to the gray fedora. Its crown is blocked in a similar tear-drop shape, its sideband is circled by trim and its brim turns up towards the back of the hat. It even shares the same navy-blue lining! The pink satin fedora provides an interesting contrast. Made entirely of a hot-pint satin, this hat is smaller in size than the felt has but shares the upturned brim towards the back of the hat. Its brim is circled with topstitching every 3/16’’ (0.47625 cm). Its lining is equally as bold as its exterior, with a vibrant butterfly pattern in black, pink, orange, blue and green. The classic fedora is an enduring shape in Treacy’s work, fashioned differently from collection to collection. At one time, hats were an essential part of everyday dress. This change in fashion has meant that contemporary milliners like Philip Treacy can treat their designs as exciting challenges and opportunities for new innovations.

The majority of Philip Treacy’s designs today retail upwards of $1000, and his couture pieces often sell for much more. Treacy’s work is favoured by royalty and popular-culture royalty alike. He has designed for Grace Jones, Lady Gaga, Camilla Bowles and created 36 hats for the royal wedding of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, William and Kate. Born in Ireland, Treacy studied at London’s Royal College of Art and graduated in 1990. His eye-catching designs quickly rose the young designer to fame. Though he is primarily known for his namesake line, Treacy also designs for many established couture houses in Europe, such as Chanel, Dior, Givenchy and Alexander McQueen. In the millinery world of today, Treacy’s name is ubiquitous.

Drawing of Philip Treacy hat FRC 2009.01.402 by Millie Yates

Drawing of Philip Treacy hat by Millie Yates FRC 2009.01.402

The colour palette of the hat is elegant and natural, but it is its design that is most intriguing. Treacy does not create ordinary hats; it is the sharp shaping, smooth curves and dramatic feathers in this particular design that command attention. It is this touch of originality imbued in even his most classic pieces that makes Treacy’s work so remarkable.

References

Davies, Kevin, and Philip Treacy. Philip Treacy by Kevin Davies. Berlin: Phaidon, 2013. Print.

Dreher, Denise. From the Neck Up: An Illustrated Guide to Hatmaking. Minneapolis, MN: Madhatter, 1981. Print.

“Fedora.” The Berg Fashion Library. The Berg Fashion Library, n.d. Web. 4 Nov. 2015. <http://www.bergfashionlibrary.com/view/bdfh/bdfh-div13290.xml&gt;.

Hopkins, Susie. “Milliners.” The Berg Fashion Library. The Berg Fashion Library, 2005. Web. 4 Nov. 2015. <http://www.bergfashionlibrary.com/view/bazf/bazf00399.xml&gt;.

Peck, Jamie. “The History of the Fedora.” Broadly RSS. N.p., 01 Aug. 2015. Web. 04 Nov. 2015.

Phillips, Tom. Women & Hats: Vintage People on Photo Postcards. Oxford: U of Oxford, 2010. Print.

Philip Treacy Website. http://www.philiptreacy.co.uk/

Philip Treacy Millinery. Perf. Philip Treacy. Victoria and Albert Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/videos/p/video-philip-treacy-millinery&gt;.